MUSHROOMS

 

INTRODUCTION

----.Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of macrofungi. They include both edible/medicinal and poisonous species. However, originally, the word “mushroom” was used for the edible members of macrofungi and “toadstools” for poisonous ones of the “gill” macrofungi. Scientifically the term “toadstool” has no meaning at all and it has been proposed that the term is dropped altogether in order to avoid confusion and the terms edible ...................................................................... .......Read more

DEFINITION OF A MUSHROOM

....Mushrooms with other fungi are something special in the living world, being neither plants nor animals. They have been placed in a kingdom of their own called the kingdom of Myceteae. ut what are mushrooms? The word ushroom may mean different things to different people andcountries.------------------------------------------------.---------------------------------------------Read more

LIFE CYCLE

......If a section of the gills is cut and examined under the microscope, spores will be observed on their surface. The spores will start to fall as the cap fully expands, indicating maturity of the mushroom. The spores are so minute that they float  in the air and are carried by the wind. Eventually, they fall to the ground, usually with rain. .............................==..=Readmore

MUSHROOM BIOLOGY

....mushrooms has been well known that the 20th century has been an explosive time for the accumulation of knowledge. Modern technology for human civilisation is expanding every day. However, human beings still face and will continue to face three basic problems: shortage of food-----..................--------------------------------------.---------------------------------------------Read more

THE CONCEPT OF MUSHROOM BIOLOGY

.....The biological science that is concerned with fungi is called mycology. Mushroom biology is the branch of mycology that deals with mushrooms in many disciplines.........----------------------------------------.------------------------------------ --------Read more

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

....Reducing Environmental Pollution by Bioconversion of Vast Quantities of Organic Wastes into Mushrooms Organic solid wastes are a kind of biomass, which are generated annually through the activities of the agricultural, forest and food processing industries..................................................====================================.====Readmore

NATRITIONAL VALUE OF MUSHROOMS

.....The greatest difficulty in feeding man is to supply a sufficient quantity of the body-building material -- protein. The other three nutritional categories are: the source of energy food— carbohydrates and fats; accessory food factors-- vitamins; and inorganic compounds which are indispensable to good health.-----------------------------.---------------------------------------------Readmore

MUSHROOM SPAWN PRPARATION

==Definitions of spawn and spawning. The word “spawn” is derived from an old French verb,  espandre, meaning to spread out or expand, which was derived from the Latin, expandere, meaning to spread.......=====================Readmore

MUSHROOM SPAWN HANDLING

....Maintenance of spawn quality. Mushroom spawn, whether prepared as a family home project or on industrial scale using modern equipment, should be in excellent condition when delivered to growers. Spawn of most mushrooms  can be refrigerated, but it should be warmed to normal room temperature before it is used as an inoculum or as planting spawn. .................................................................................................................................................................. Readmore

MANAGEMENT OF FRUITING /MUSHROOM DEVELOPMENT

...Management of Fruiting/Mushroom Development Under suitable environmental conditions, which may  differ from those adopted for spawn  running,  primordial formation occurs and then followed by the production of fruiting bodies. The appearance of mushrooms normally occurs in rhythmic cycles called "flushes". ============ ....=====.====Readmore

HARVESTING MUSHROOMS CAREFULLY

....The mushroom can grow on a variety of culture media and on different agar formulations, both natural and synthetic, depending on the purpose of the cultivation. Synthetic media are often expensive and time-consuming in preparation; hence they are not commonly used for routine purposes.===...........................=========================.====Readmore

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

....Reducing Environmental Pollution by Bioconversion of Vast Quantities of Organic Wastes into Mushrooms Organic solid wastes are a kind of biomass, which are generated annually through the activities of the agricultural, forest and food processing industries..................................................====================================.====Readmore

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

....Mushrooms can convert lignocellulosic waste materials into a wide diversity of products, which have multi-beneficial effects to human beings, e.g., as food, health tonic, and medicine, as feed, as fertilisers, and for protecting and regenerating the environment. In addition, mushroom cultivation can positively generate equitable economic growth.===.====Readmore

CONCLUDING REMARKS

....Mushrooms can serve as food, as tonic, and as medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make you healthier, fitter, and happier. They can make you live longer, and always look younger....========================.====Readmore

MUSHROOM BIOREMEDIATION: BENIFIT THE ENVIRONMENT THROUGH MUSHROOM MYCELIA

....This component of applied mushroom biology deals mainly with the aspects of benefits to the Earth from the activities of-mushroom mycelium. Environmental contamination can be ameliorated by the application of mushroom mycelial technologies------------------------------------.......===================================================Readmore

SEXUALITY IN THE EDIBLE MUSHROOMS

.....Although the process of sexuality is complicated by nutritional and physiological conditions, genetic constitution is the most critical factor determining both the occurrence and the morphology of the fruiting bodies in the edible mushrooms. .................................................................................................................................................................. Readmore

MUSHROOM CULTIVATION :BOTH A SCIENCE AND AN ART

......The cultivation of mushrooms can be both a relatively primitive farming activity, and a high technology industry. In each case, however, continuous production of successful crops requires both practical experience and scientific knowledge.  Mushroom cultivation is both a science and an art.............................===============================Readmore

WORLD MUSHROOM PRODUCTION

...Generally, cultivated mushrooms should play a greater role in the endeavour to increase food protein. This is especially true in developing countries, since growth substrates for mushrooms are basically agricultural and industrial discards that are inedible for humans (Chang and Miles 1984)........====......====================================Readmore

MUSHROOM NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES

...Edible mushrooms provide high quality of protein that can be produced with greater biological efficiency than animal protein. They are rich in fibre, minerals and vitamins, and have low crude fat content, with a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (72 to 85 %) relative to total content of fatty acids......=======================Readmore

SECRETING A GOOD QUALITY FRUITING CULTURE

...Tissue culture. A large healthy mushroom should be chosen either in the later button or egg stage. It should be cleaned with 75% alcohol. The mushroom should be split in half by hand longitudinally and some inside tissue taken from the upper part of the stipe. It should be placed centrally on the surface of the medium with a sterilised needle. The quicker this is done the better.=====......=====............................................................................................===============Readmore

THE STATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING MUSHROOM INDUSTRIES IN THE ASIAN AND PACIFIC REGION

=== At the beginning, the strategy is not to use highly mechanized technologies as in the large mushroom farms in industrialized countries, but to promote cottage style enterprise for the rural poor in thousands of small mushrooms sheds, constructed using locally available materials ( like those used in China at the beginning of its mushroom industry).....................................................................................................................................................Readmore

MUSHROOM HUNTING

....Fungi are found just about everywhere. Mushrooms, a special group of macro-fungi, are rather more selective than ther fungi in that the size of the fruiting body requires the availability of more nutrients than are required for the production of asexual spores by micro-fungi. In damp places, such as tree-fern ecosystems and tropical rain forests, plentiful moisture leads to abundant mushroom formation.-..........------------------------------------------------.---------------------------------------------Read more

 
   
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